This infographic by Tameson.co.uk shows the most typical failure modes of solenoid valves with tips on how to solve it. To prevent the malfunctioning of solenoid valves, you have to pay attention to the following during installation:
Make sure the threads and the pipe are clean and completely deburred. Dirt particles may cause the valve to leak.
Pay attention to the flow direction of the valve, the correct flow direction is usually depicted on the valve body. Some valves require a pressure differential to operate, when the pressure differential is too low, these valves don’t function properly.
Check if the power supply corresponds with the voltage that is shown on the coil. A wrong power supply may cause the valve to malfunction or even damage.
Do not power the coil when not mounted to the valve, the coil may burn out.
A worn out or damaged seal may cause the valve to leak. Many manufacturers provide a solenoid valve repair kit.